With support from the Packard Foundation, the African Population and Health Research Centre (APHRC) has been exploring the relationship between conservation agriculture and gender. This journal article reflects APHRC’s findings. The study found that existing research was limited on this topic, but that there are many important findings to explore. For example, women farmers adopted conservation agriculture less, due to a variety of factors including lack of access to land and extension services. However, when it was used, conservation agriculture positively altered gender relations and boosted women’s participation in agricultural and household decisionmaking. The study identifies additional gaps in research where more work is needed from funders, and has informed future grantmaking for the Agriculture, Livelihoods, and Conservation program within the Packard Foundation.