Microscopy is fundamental to biology, chemistry, and material science. In my prior work, we developed microscopes that can rapidly image specimens ranging from single molecules to whole organisms. The rates at which these, and other modern instruments, acquire data has now vastly outpaced our ability to interpret and act upon this information. This is especially limiting for studies of living specimens wherein what/how to image next often depends on how the system responds at prior time points. To overcome this impasse, I will develop new instruments together with artificial intelligence-based instrument control and image analysis. In my benchmark application, I will perform transformative investigations of how chromosome segregation errors occur in living cells, a process with immense implications for human health. Together, these technologies will fundamentally change how microscopes are used in research and enable studies of previously intractable biological questions.