We continue to study the axial patterning of the Drosophila oocyte, with the primary emphasis on localization and translational regulation of mRNAs that encode localized patterning determinants. Bruno protein is crucial for this process, and serves to recognize the oskar mRNA and control its activity. Bruno acts as both a repressor and an activator of translation, and we are asking how Bruno performs each role and how it decides whether to repress or activate. Our work has also led us to focus on the role of cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes in this regulation, as well as on the role of small regulatory RNAs.